The LaTeX Project Public License
LPPL Version 1.3 2003-12-01
Copyright 1999 2002-03 LaTeX3 Project
Everyone is allowed to distribute verbatim copies of this
license document, but modification of it is not allowed.
The LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL) is the primary license under
which the the LaTeX kernel and the base LaTeX packages are distributed.
You may use this license for any work of which you hold the copyright
and which you wish to distribute. This license may be particularly
suitable if your work is TeX-related (such as a LaTeX package), but
you may use it with small modifications even if your work is unrelated
The section `WHETHER AND HOW TO DISTRIBUTE WORKS UNDER THIS LICENSE',
below, gives instructions, examples, and recommendations for authors
who are considering distributing their works under this license.
This license gives conditions under which a work may be distributed
and modified, as well as conditions under which modified versions of
that work may be distributed.
We, the LaTeX3 Project, believe that the conditions below give you
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In this license document the following terms are used:
Any work being distributed under this License.
Any work that under any applicable law is derived from the Work.
Any procedure that produces a Derived Work under any applicable
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Making copies of the Work available from one person to another, in
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systems such as Sun's Network File System (NFS).
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A person or persons nominated as such within the Work. If there is
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A Base Interpreter may depend on external components but these
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CONDITIONS ON DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
1. Activities other than distribution and/or modification of the Work
are not covered by this license; they are outside its scope. In
particular, the act of running the Work is not restricted and no
requirements are made concerning any offers of support for the Work.
2. You may distribute a complete, unmodified copy of the Work as you
received it. Distribution of only part of the Work is considered
modification of the Work, and no right to distribute such a Derived
Work may be assumed under the terms of this clause.
3. You may distribute a Compiled Work that has been generated from a
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the recipients may install the Compiled Work on their system exactly
as it would have been installed if they generated a Compiled Work
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4. If you are the Current Maintainer of the Work, you may, without
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Compiled Works generated from the Derived Work. Derived Works
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6. If you are not the Current Maintainer of the Work, you may
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in the copyright notice that it is exempt from that condition. Only
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a. If a component of this Derived Work can be a direct replacement
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identifies itself to the user when used interactively with that
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clearly and unambiguously identifies itself as a modified version
of this component to the user when used interactively with that
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detailing the nature of the changes to that component, or a
prominent reference to another file that is distributed as part
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of the changes.
c. No information in the Derived Work implies that any persons,
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they do provide such support for the Derived Work.
d. You distribute at least one of the following with the Derived Work:
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if your distribution of a modified component is made by
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regard to the Derived Work.
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then produced by applying some process to that format, does not relax or
nullify any sections of this license as they pertain to the results of
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10. a. A Derived Work may be distributed under a different license
provided that license itself honors the conditions listed in
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to honor the rest of the conditions in this license.
b. If a Derived Work is distributed under this license, that
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11. This license places no restrictions on works that are unrelated to
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MAINTENANCE OF THE WORK
The Work has the status `author-maintained' if the Copyright Holder
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the Work that the Work can only be maintained by the Copyright Holder
or simply that is `author-maintained'.
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address). It is not required for the Current Maintainer to acknowledge
or act upon these error reports.
The Work changes from status `maintained' to `unmaintained' if there
is no Current Maintainer, or the person stated to be Current
Maintainer of the work cannot be reached through the indicated means
of communication for a period of six months, and there are no other
significant signs of active maintenance.
You can become the Current Maintainer of the Work by agreement with
any existing Current Maintainer to take over this role.
If the Work is unmaintained, you can become the Current Maintainer of
the Work through the following steps:
1. Make a reasonable attempt to trace the Current Maintainer (and
the Copyright Holder, if the two differ) through the means of
an Internet or similar search.
2. If this search is successful, then enquire whether the Work
is still maintained.
a. If it is being maintained, then ask the Current Maintainer
to update their communication data within one month.
b. If the search is unsuccessful or no action to resume active
maintenance is taken by the Current Maintainer, then announce
within the pertinent community your intention to take over
maintenance. (If the Work is a LaTeX work, this could be
done, for example, by posting to comp.text.tex.)
3a. If the Current Maintainer is reachable and agrees to pass
maintenance of the Work to you, then this takes effect
immediately upon announcement.
b. If the Current Maintainer is not reachable and the Copyright
Holder agrees that maintenance of the Work be passed to you,
then this takes effect immediately upon announcement.
4. If you make an `intention announcement' as described in 2b. above
and after three months your intention is challenged neither by
the Current Maintainer nor by the Copyright Holder nor by other
people, then you may arrange for the Work to be changed so as
to name you as the (new) Current Maintainer.
5. If the previously unreachable Current Maintainer becomes
reachable once more within three months of a change completed
under the terms of 3b) or 4), then that Current Maintainer must
become or remain the Current Maintainer upon request provided
they then update their communication data within one month.
A change in the Current Maintainer does not, of itself, alter the fact
that the Work is distributed under the LPPL license.
If you become the Current Maintainer of the Work, you should
immediately provide, within the Work, a prominent and unambiguous
statement of your status as Current Maintainer. You should also
announce your new status to the same pertinent community as
in 2b) above.
WHETHER AND HOW TO DISTRIBUTE WORKS UNDER THIS LICENSE
This section contains important instructions, examples, and
recommendations for authors who are considering distributing their
works under this license. These authors are addressed as `you' in
Choosing This License or Another License
If for any part of your work you want or need to use *distribution*
conditions that differ significantly from those in this license, then
do not refer to this license anywhere in your work but, instead,
distribute your work under a different license. You may use the text
of this license as a model for your own license, but your license
should not refer to the LPPL or otherwise give the impression that
your work is distributed under the LPPL.
The document `modguide.tex' in the base LaTeX distribution explains
the motivation behind the conditions of this license. It explains,
for example, why distributing LaTeX under the GNU General Public
License (GPL) was considered inappropriate. Even if your work is
unrelated to LaTeX, the discussion in `modguide.tex' may still be
relevant, and authors intending to distribute their works under any
license are encouraged to read it.
A Recommendation on Modification Without Distribution
It is wise never to modify a component of the Work, even for your own
personal use, without also meeting the above conditions for
distributing the modified component. While you might intend that such
modifications will never be distributed, often this will happen by
accident -- you may forget that you have modified that component; or
it may not occur to you when allowing others to access the modified
version that you are thus distributing it and violating the conditions
of this license in ways that could have legal implications and, worse,
cause problems for the community. It is therefore usually in your
best interest to keep your copy of the Work identical with the public
one. Many works provide ways to control the behavior of that work
without altering any of its licensed components.
How to Use This License
To use this license, place in each of the components of your work both
an explicit copyright notice including your name and the year the work
was authored and/or last substantially modified. Include also a
statement that the distribution and/or modification of that
component is constrained by the conditions in this license.
Here is an example of such a notice and statement:
%% Copyright 2003 M. Y. Name
% This work may be distributed and/or modified under the
% conditions of the LaTeX Project Public License, either version 1.3
% of this license or (at your option) any later version.
% The latest version of this license is in
% and version 1.3 or later is part of all distributions of LaTeX
% version 2003/12/01 or later.
% This work has the LPPL maintenance status "maintained".
% This Current Maintainer of this work is M. Y. Name.
% This work consists of the files pig.dtx and pig.ins
% and the derived file pig.sty.
Given such a notice and statement in a file, the conditions
given in this license document would apply, with the `Work' referring
to the three files `pig.dtx', `pig.ins', and `pig.sty' (the last being
generated from `pig.dtx' using `pig.ins'), the `Base Interpreter'
referring to any "LaTeX-Format", and both `Copyright Holder' and
`Current Maintainer' referring to the person `M. Y. Name'.
To prevent the Maintenance section of LPPL from allowing someone else
to become the Current Maintainer without your agreement, you could
change "maintained" above into "author-maintained".
Defining What Constitutes the Work
The LPPL requires that distributions of the Work contain all the
files of the Work. It is therefore important that you provide a
way for the licensee to determine which files constitute the Work.
This could, for example, be achieved by explicitly listing all the
files of the Work near the copyright notice of each file or by
using a line such as:
% This work consists of all files listed in manifest.txt.
in that place. In the absence of an unequivocal list it might be
impossible for the licensee to determine what is considered by you
to comprise the Work and, in such a case, the licensee would be
entitled to make reasonable conjectures as to which files comprise